Instead, these principles are upheld for their value in promoting independent and responsible individuals—people who are capable of making decisions that … The total set of these commands is the moral code of the religion. This is the independence option. X is morally obligatory if and only if God has commanded X. This, too, would have been the lot of our ancestors, restricting their opportunities for cooperation and the size of the societies in which they could live. 390-380 BCE) 2018. How Can I Be a Better Person? To adopt this perspective provides a different perspective on many questions that now confront us. Aquinas, Thomas. These acts constitute use of sexual organs in ways that could not lead to reproduction. Some of these must surely count as progressive: we have become able to recognize the claims of those who look different, to repudiate the idea of slavery, to accept women as full members of at least some societies. However, see Evans (2018) for a more detailed discussion of these arguments. In Aristotelian terms, the function of an object will be understood as how it fulfills functions within the system to which it belongs—teeth allow us to chew food, the heart functions as a pump to circulate the blood. Similarly, if the Muslim extremist cites a verse of the Koran as a justification for terrorism, or if the American fundamentalist turns to the Book of Revelations to argue for the destabilization of the Near East as a means to the “end of days” and the return of the Savior, we should not only protest the tendentious interpretation of the texts, but also point out that these texts are responses to ethical predicaments of the distant past, possibly adaptive to their own times, but in need of reassessment in ours. Ethics is a practical philosophy, not just societal rules to how to live with and treat each other! 2014. The basic idea is that it is okay to kill an attacker in self-defence, providing that one does not intend to kill—the killing must be a side-effect of one’s action, not its intention. For Aristotle, understanding any object requires knowing four aspects of it. Adams accepts that the arbitrariness of God is not tolerable, but does not give up the DCT entirely. The Doctrine of Double Effect was originally proposed by Aquinas in Summa Theologica (II-II, Qu. Scriptures do not actually pronounce on the status of small clusters of cells, but even if they did, we can, and should, view such pronouncements as residues of past responses to ethical predicaments, to be re-evaluated in light of our own knowledge and own possibilities. School. This paper defends a justifiable objective moral code, termed ethical rationalism (ER), that does not depend on the existence of any supernatural being. Edward N. Zalta. Whatever our response, puzzles arise. Furthermore, Thomas Aquinas’s version of the Natural Law Theory also cannot apply, for it depends on the designed creation of the world by a personal god. Dalai Lama says that people are undermining the religion over science. Over the five thousand years of recorded ethical practice, there have been further significant changes. Moreover, an answer to the question of why one ought to live morally will be near at hand. Clearly, this is going to make it very challenging to apply the DCT to issues that demand agreement with those of diverse or no faith. Both religion and ethics are indispensable for the complete and integral development of the relations between the individual, society and God. Ethics, which is a major branch of philosophy, encompasses right conduct and good life. BOX A: Non-monotheistic religions and morality. Burton was born in Kentucky. We should also recognize that as social institutions, religions provide support for others, both within and without the religion. 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