1A). (1) Water iodine level used as variable. 226 children (176 children in High F area, including 119 children with skeletal fluorosis and 57 children with only dental fluorosis; 50 children in low-F area without skeletal or dental fluorosis). The parents or guardians completed a questionnaire on demographic and personal characteristics including the child’s sex, age at testing, parity, illnesses before age 3, past medical history of the child and caretakers, parental or guardian age, education and occupational histories, and residential history, and household income. ACADEMIC BACKGROUND There were also significant dropout rates in these rural areas, which could reflect even lower schooling performances. (1) Similar occupations, living standards, and social customs in the two villages. Wang S, Zhang H, Fan W, Fang S, Kang P, Chen X, Yu M. (2005). 1,000 children, 495 (49.5%) female and 405 (50.5%) male. we found that except for the intelligence levels of 12-year-old children in the control area being higher than that of those in the endemic area, there were no statistically significant differences among any of the other age groups. 84 children (34 from high-fluoride villages, 50 children from control village), Same socioeconomic status (E on an A-E scale); same attendance status at school (regular students attending more than 80% of classes), Questionnaire prepared by Prof. JH Shah; standardized on the Gujarati population with 97% reliability rate in relation to the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, “The average IQ score of the 34 students drinking the high F water was significantly lower (p?0.05) than among the 50 students drinking the low F water.”, “the present investigation concludes that the three villages of Chhasara, Gundala, and Mundra, are F-contaminated villages. – High iodine/high fluoride area=2.97 mg/L – Lower iodine/lower fluoride area=0.5 mg/L, (A) Average IQ is lower in High-F area than in Low-F area (76.67, “High iodine and high fluorine have certain influence on children’s intelligence and thyroid function.”, 205 children (32 controls; 85 High F; 32 High-F/High Iodine; 28 High F/Low Iodine; 28 Low F/Low Iodine), – Control area = 0.75 mg/L – High F only = 2.90 mg/L – High F/High I = 2.85 mg/L – High F/Low I = 2.94 mg/L – Low F/Low I = 0.48 mg/L. This is an issue which merits utmost attention.”, 320 children (160 children from high-F village; 160 children from lower-F village), High-F village = 4.12 mg/L Lower-F village = 0.91 mg/L. Mean = 1.64 mg/L; Range = 0.22 to 5.84 mg/L, Mean = 2.2 mg/L; Range = 1.0 to 4.07 mg/L, “Results of our pilot study showed that moderate and severe dental fluorosis was significantly associated with deficits in WISC-R digit span. Consequently, the upper permissible drinking water fluoride level needs to be revised downwards to minimize the effect of fluoride on children neurodevelopment. Along with fluoride, mother’s diet during pregnancy was also found to be significantly related with IQ of children.”. To explore the relationship between total intelligence quotient (IQ), verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), performance intelligence quotient (PIQ). (1991). (3) Parent’s literacy was determined. (4) Five children who had not lived in these areas at least 1 year were excluded. Connett: We're talking with Dr. Phyllis Mullenix, who in 1995, published a very important work on the neurotoxic effects of fluoride in rat studies. (2) Each child’s water fluoride level, and urine fluoride level, levels were individually determined. . October 28, 1992 F levels in tap water mean concentrations for each trimester were: 2.6 ±1.1 mg/l, 3.1 ±1.1 mg/l and 3.7 ±1.0 mg/l respectively. Non-exposed workers had similar work conditions, economic status, and lifestyle habits. Staff Reporter The CRT-RC2 is a validated test for basic cognitive abilities, and has been widely adopted in China after modifications, as it is non-verbal and less affected by language, and cultural and ethnic differences (Sun et al., 2015). (2011. “Reduction in intelligence was observed with an increased water fluoride level (, “This study indicates that exposure to fluoride is associated with reduced intelligence in children. Tests of cognitive function in the offspring at age 4 and 6–12 years. Teaching, An association between elevated fluoride exposure and reduced intelligence has now been observed in 65 IQ studies. The range for the F level was 0.14–2.07 mg/L in the dry season and0.01–1.34 mg/L in the rainy season (Table 1). Although a link between fluoride and intelligence might initially seem surprising or random, it is actually consistent with a large body of animal research. Additionally, we utilized logistic regression model to examine the associations between fluoride, THs (Thyroid hormones) and different levels of intelligence, in which the IQ scores were categorized into five degrees as follows: marginal (70–89), normal (90–109), high normal (110–119), superior (120–129) and excellent (130), and the normal group was assigned as the control. The most recent Chinese study on fluoride & the brain was posted on PubMed just last week. . The interviewer is Paul Connett. Children’s IQ was inversely related to urinary fluoride content, (p<0.0001). This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant nos. Control of potential confounders was not optimal in these studies; nonetheless, the studies taken as a whole are indicative of an adverse effect of fluoride on IQ. We have found a significant inverse relationship between intelligence and the water fluoride level, and intelligence and the urinary fluoride level. (A) Average IQ of children in endemic area (92.07) somewhat lower than that of control area (93.78), NS. – Average IQ of children in the High Fluoride/Low Iodine group (IQ=64.8) significantly lower than the children in the Low Fluoride/Low Iodine group (IQ = 85.0), p<0.01.- The percentage of children with low IQ (<69) significantly greater in High F/Low Iodine group (40.6%) than in Low Fluoride/Low Iodine  group (13.6%), p<0.01. Negative correlation between urine F and IQ (p<0.01). This Canadian study examined whether higher fluoride intake during pregnancy was associated with IQ scores in children. (1) No significant differences in urinary lead, arsenic, or iodine levels between the four groups. Wang SX, Wang ZH, Cheng XT, Li J, Sang ZP, Zhang XD, Han LL, Qiao XY, Wu ZM, Wang ZQ. (2) The areas have similar nutritional status and both have middle class socioeconomic status (although Sachana is slightly poorer). . (B) A greater percentage (30%) of children in endemic area have low IQ (, “In summary, although diminished intellectual ability can result from a multitude of factors (both innate and acquired) that influence neural development and cell division in the cerebrum, the comparison conducted in this study of two areas where the other environment factors are basically the same shows clear differences in IQ, and it [is] probable that this difference is due to a high fluoride environment.”. The intelligence of the 12-year-old group in the endemic area was lower than that of the control area, with the difference having statistical significance (Z = 3.244, P = 0.001). 15 (5.58%) had F level between 0-0.5mg/l; Wechsler intelligence scale for Children V (WISC-V) subtest. (4) Both towns at high altitude. (2014). (1) Majority of children of farmers. p < 0.05 – The average IQ in high-fluoride area (100.5 + 15.8) is also significantly lower than average IQ in control area (104 (1) Both areas are free from iodine deficiency. (1) Both fluoride in urine, and fluoride in water, were significantly correlated with IQ, and this correlation remained significant after controlling for lead exposure, socioeconomic status, mother’s education, malnutrition, and transferrin. Negative correlation coefficients were found for the average score for all the subjects and for the overall score, with the result being statistically significant in five out of the eight subjects and in the overall score (Tables 4 and 5). (1) Children included in the study are lifelong residents of study area. The human studies, which are based on IQ examinations of 24,623 children (65 studies) and 245 adults (2 studies), provide compelling evidence that fluoride exposure during the early years of life can damage a child’s developing brain. (2) Villages have similar population size, social, economic and educational backgrounds. After adjusting for confounders, urinary fluoride was the significant predictor for intelligence.”. (1) Exclusion criteria: genetic, congenital, or acquired diseases related to the nervous system, past or present. 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